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Van Leeuwen, P.J., Y. Cheng, and S. Reich (2015), Nonlinear Data Assimilation Springer, doi:10,1007/978-3-319-18347-3.

Evensen, G. F.C. Vossepoel, P.J. van Leeuwen (2022) Data Assimilation Fundamentals, Springer. doi: 10.1007/978-3-030-96709-3. This is an open access book, free to download!

Reviewed publications:

  1. Tao, D., P.J. van Leeuwen, M. Bell and Y Ying (2022) Dynamics and predictability of tropical cyclone rapid intensification in ensemble simulations of Hurricane Patricia (2015), J. Geophys Res. Atmospheres, doi: 10.1029/2021JD036079
  2. Shackelford, K., C. A. DeMott, P.J. van Leeuwen, E. Thompson, and S. Hagos (2022) Rain-induced stratification of the equatorial Indian Ocean and its potential feedback to the atmosphere, J. Geophys Res. Oceans, doi: https://doi. org/10.1029/2021JC018025
  3. Pathiraja, S., and P.J. van Leeuwen, (2022) Model uncertainty estimation in data assimilation for multi-scale systems with partially observed resolved variables, JAMES, doi: http://10.1029/2021MS002564
  4. Chakraborty, N., and P.J. van Leeuwen (2022) Using Mutual Information to measure Time-lags from non-linear processes in Astronomy, Phys. Rev. Research 4, 013036, doi: 10.1103/PhysRevResearch.4.013036
  5. Tamang, S.K., A. Ebtehaj, P.J. van Leeuwen, G. Lerman, and E. Foufoula-Georgiou (2022) Ensemble Riemannian Data Assimilation for High-dimensional Nonlinear Dynamics, Nonlinear Proc. in Geophysics, doi: http://10.5194/npg-29-77-2022
  6. Van Leeuwen, P.J., M. DeCaria, N. Chakraborty, and M. Pulido (2021) A new framework for causal discovery, Chaos, 31, 123128,
  7. Kedzuf N.J., J. C. Chiu, V. Chandrasekar, S. Biswas, S. S. Joshil, Y. Lu, P.J. van Leeuwen, C. Westbrook, Y. Blanchard, S. O’Shea (2021) Retrieving microphysical properties of concurrent pristine ice and snow using polarimetric radar observations, Atmosp. Meas. Tech., doi: 10.5194/amt-14-6885-2021
  8. Dauzickaite I., A. Lawless, J. Scott and P.J. van Leeuwen (2021) Randomised preconditioning for the forcing formulation of weak constraint 4D-Var, Q.J. Royal Meteorol. Soc.,doi: 10.1002/qj.4151
  9. Dauzickaite I., A. Lawless, J. Scott and P.J. van Leeuwen (2021) On time-parallel preconditioning for the state formulation of incremental weak constraint 4D-Var, Q.J. Royal Meteorol. Soc. doi: 10.1002/qj.4140.
  10. Tamang, S.K., A. Ebtehaj, P.J. van Leeuwen, D. Zou, and G. Lerman (2021) Ensemble Riemannian Data Assimilation over the Wasserstein Space, Nonlinear Proc in Geophys., doi: 10.5194/npg-28-295-2021
  11. Di Mauro C., R. Hostache, P. Matgen, R. Pelich, M. Chini, P.J. van Leeuwen, N. Nichols, and G. Blöschl (2021) Assimilation of probabilistic flood maps from SAR data into ahydrologic-hydraulic forecasting model: a proof of concept, Hydrology and Earth System Sciences, doi:10.5194/hess-25-4081-2021
  12. van Leeuwen T., van Leeuwen P.J., Zhuk S. (2021) Data-Driven Modeling for Wave-Propagation. In: Vermolen F.J., Vuik C. (eds) Numerical Mathematics and Advanced Applications ENUMATH 2019. Lecture Notes in Computational Science and Engineering, 139. Springer, Chambridge, doi: 10.1007/978-3-030-55874-1_67
  13. Hu, C-C, and P.J. van Leeuwen (2021) A particle flow filter for fully nonlinear high-dimensional data assimilation., Q.J. Royal Meteorol. Soc.,  doi:10.1002/qj.4028
  14. Lucini, M.M., P.J. van Leeuwen, and M. Pulido (2020) Model uncertainty estimation using the expectation maximization algorithm and a particle flow filter, SIAM/ASA Journal on Uncertainty Quantification, doi: 10.1137/19M1297300.
  15. Chiu, J. Christine, C. Kevin Yang, Peter J. van Leeuwen, Graham Feingold, Robert Wood Yann Blanchard, Fan Mei, Jian Wang (2020) Observational constraints on warm cloud microphysical processes using machine learning and optimization techniques, Geophysical Research Letters, doi: 10.1029/2020GL091236.
  16. Ren, H., J. Amezcua, and P.J. van Leeuwen (2020) Effects of misspecified time-correlated model error in the (ensemble)Kalman Smoother, Q.J. Royal Meteorol. Soc., doi: 10.1002/qj.3934
  17. Van Leeuwen, P.J., (2020) A consistent interpretation of the stochastic version of the Ensemble Kalman Filter, Q.J. Royal Meteorol. Soc., doi: 10.1002/qj.3819
  18. Dauzickaite I., A. Lawless, J. Scott and P.J. van Leeuwen (2020) Spectral estimates for saddle point matrices arising in weak constraint four-dimensional variational data assimilation, Numerical Linear Algebra with Applications, doi: 10.1002/nla.2313
  19. Holm H. H., M.L. Sætra, and  P.J. van Leeuwen (2020) Massively Parallel Implicit Equal-Weights Particle Filter for Ocean Drift Trajectory Forecasting, J. Compu. Physics, 6, doi: 10.1016/j.jcpx.2020.100053
  20. Tao, D, M. Bell, R.Rotunno and P.J. van Leeuwen (2020) Why do the maximum intensities in modeled tropical cyclones vary under the same environmental conditions?, Geophysical Research Letters, doi:10.1029/2019GL085980.
  21. Van Leeuwen, P.J. (2019) Nonlocal observations and information transfer in data assimilation, Frontiers in Applied Mathematics and Statistics, 26,
  22. Gommenginger, C. …P.J. van Leeuwen… (70 authors), (2019) SEASTAR: A Mission to study Ocean Submesoscale Dynamics and Small-Scale Atmosphere-Ocean Processes in Coastal, Shelf and Polar Seas, Front. Mar. Sci., Doi: 10.3389/fmars.2019.00457
  23. Pinheiro, F.R., P.J. van Leeuwen, and G. Geppert (2019) Efficient nonlinear data assimilation using synchronisation in a particle filter, Q.J. Royal Meteorol. Soc. doi: 10.1002/qj.3576
  24. Pulido, M, P.J. van Leeuwen, (2019) Kernel embedding of maps for Bayesian inference: The variational mapping particle filter J.Comp.Physics, doi: 10.1016/
  25. Pulido M., vanLeeuwen, P.J., Posselt D.J. (2019) Kernel Embedded Nonlinear Observational Mappings in the Variational Mapping Particle Filter. In: Rodrigues J. et al. (eds) Computational Science – ICCS 2019. ICCS 2019. Lecture Notes in Computer Science, vol 11539. Springer, 10.1007/978-3-030-22747-0_11
  26.   Van Leeuwen, P.J., L. Nerger, R. Potthast, S. Reich, and H.R. Kunsch (2019) A review of Particle Filters for Geoscience applications, Q.J.Royal Meteorol. Soc., doi: 10.1002/qj.3551
  27. Skauvold, J. J. Eidsvik, P.J. van Leeuwen, and J. Amezcua (2019), A revised implicit equal-weights particle filter, Q.J. Royal Meteorol. Soc. 10.1002/qj.3506
  28. Janjic, T., R. Potthast, and P.J. van Leeuwen (2018) Editorial Special session ISDA 2016, Q.J. Royal Meteorol. Soc., doi: 10.1002/qj.3382.
  29. Amezcua, J, and P.J. van Leeuwen (2018), Time-correlated model error in the (ensemble)Kalman smoother, Q.J.Royal Meteorol. Soc, doi:10.1002/qj.3378
  30. Vetra-Carvalho, S., P.J. van Leeuwen, L. Nerger, A. Barth, U. Altaf, P. Brasseur, P. Kirchgessner, J-M. Beckers, (2018) State-of-the-art stochastic data assimilation methods for high-dimensional non-Gaussian problems, Tellus A, 10.1080/16000870.2018.1445364
  31. Van Leeuwen, P.J. (2017) Particle Filters for nonlinear data assimilation in high-dimensional systems, Annales de la faculté des sciences de Toulouse Sér. 6, 26 no. 4 p. 1051-1085, doi: 10.5802/afst.1560
  32. Zhu, M., P.J. van Leeuwen, and W. Zhang (2017), Estimating model-error covariances using particle filters, Q.J. Royal Meteorol. Soc., 10.1002/qj.3132
  33. Pinheiro, F.R., P.J. van Leeuwen, and U. Parlitz (2017), An ensemble framework for time-delayed synchronisation, Q.J. Royal Meteorol. Soc., 10.1002/qj.3204
  34. Lang. M., P. Browne, P.J. van Leeuwen, M. Owens, (2017) Data Assimilation in the Solar Wind: Challenges and First Results, Space Weather, 15 (11), 1490-1510.
  35. Amezcua, J., Goodliff, M. and Van Leeuwen, P. J. (2016) A weak-constraint 4DEnsembleVar. Part I: formulation and simple model experiments. Tellus A. ISSN 1600-0870 doi: 10.1080/16000870.2016.1271564  
  36. Goodliff, M., Amezcua, J. and Van Leeuwen, P. J. (2016) A weak-constraint 4DEnsembleVar. Part II: experiments with larger models. Tellus A. ISSN 1600-0870 doi: 10.1080/16000870.2016.1271565
  37. Lang, M., P.J. van Leeuwen, and P. Browne (2016) A systematic method of parameterization estimation using data assimilation Tellus A 2016, 10.3402/tellusa.v68.29012
  38. Zhu, M., van Leeuwen, P. J. and Amezcua, J. (2016), Implicit equal-weights particle filter. Q.J.R. Meteorol. Soc.. doi:10.1002/qj.2784
  39. Several authors, Van Leeuwen, P.J., World Meteorological Organization, (2015) Seamless prediction of the Earth system: from minutes to months. World Meteorological Organization, Geneva, Switzerland. ISBN 9789263111562
  40. Browne, P. A. and van Leeuwen, P. J. (2015), Twin experiments with the equivalent weights particle filter and HadCM3. Q.J.R. Meteorol. Soc., 141: 3399–3414. doi: 10.1002/qj.2621
  41. Van Leeuwen, P.J. (2015), Aspects of Particle Filtering in high-dimensional spaces. in: Dynamic Data-Driven Environmental System Science, LNCS 8964, 251, Springer, doi:10.1007/978-3-319-25138-7. (Reviewed)
  42. Vaughan, G., Methven, J., Anderson, D., Antonescu, B., Baker, L., Baker, T. P., Ballard, S. P., Bower, K. N., Brown, P. R. A., Chagnon, J., Choularton, T. W., Chylik, J., Connolly, P. J., Cook, P. A., Cotton, R. J., Crosier, J., Dearden, C., Dorsey, J. R., Frame, T. H. A., Gallagher, M. W., Goodliff, M., Gray, S. L., Harvey, B. J., Knippertz, P., Lean, H. W., Li, D., Lloyd, G., Martinez-Alvarado, O., Nicol, J., Norris, J., Öström, E., Owen, J., Parker, D. J., Plant, R. S., Renfrew, I. A., Roberts, N. M., Rosenberg, P., Rudd, A. C., Schultz, D. M., Taylor, J. P., Trzeciak, T., Tubbs, R., Vance, A. K., Van Leeuwen, P. J., Wellpott, A. and Woolley, A. (2015) Cloud banding and winds in intense European cyclones: results from the DIAMET project. Bulletin of the American Meteorological Society, 96 (2). pp. 249-265. ISSN 1520-0477 doi: 10.1175/BAMS-D-13-00238.1
  43. Goodliff, M., J. Amezqua, and P.J. van Leeuwen, Comparing hybrid data-assimilation methods on the Lorenz 1963 model with increasing nonlinearity(2015). Tellus A, 67, 26928, doi:10.3402/tellusa.v67.26928.
  44. Van Leeuwen, P.J. (2014) Representation errors in Data Assimilation, Q. J. R. Meteorol. Soc., 2014, DOI: 10.1002/qj.2464.
  45. Amezcua, J., and P.J. van Leeuwen (2014) On anamorphosis in (Ensemble) Kalman filters Tellus A 2014, 66, 23493, doi:10.3402/tellusa.v66.23493.
  46. Ades M., and P.J. van Leeuwen (2014) The effect of the equivalent-weights particle filter on model balances in a primitive equation model, Mon. Wea. Rev., 143, 581–596.  doi: 30%
  47. Van Leeuwen, P.J. (2014), Particle Filters for the Geosciences, chapter in ‘Data Assimilation for the Geosciences’, Oxford University Press blue book series.
  48. Ades M. and P.J. van Leeuwen (2014) The equivalent-weights particle filter in a high-dimensional system, Q.J.Royal Met.Soc., DOI: 10.1002/qj.2370.
  49. Bianchi, B., P.J. van Leeuwen, R.J. Hogan, and A. Berne (2013), A variational approach to retrieve rain rate by combining information from rain gauges, radars, and microwave links, J. Hydrometeorology, doi:10.1175/JHM-D-12-094.
  50. Fowler, A, and P.J. van Leeuwen (2013), Observational Impact in Data Assimilation: the effect of non-Gaussian Observation Error, Tellus A, 65,, 2013.
  51. Moodey, A.J.F, A.S. Lawless, R.W.E Potthast, and P.J. van Leeuwen (2013), Nonlinear error dynamics for cycled data assimilation methods  Inverse Problems, 29, 025002, doi:10.1088/0266-5611/29/2/025002.
  52. Van Leeuwen, P.J., and W.P.M. De Ruijter (2012), Reply to: ‘A note on “The steadiness of separating meandering currents” ‘ , J. Physical Oceanogr.,1371-1374. doi:
  53. Ades, M., and P.J. Van Leeuwen (2012), An exploration of the Equivalent-Weights Particle Filter , Q. J. Royal Meteorol. Soc., doi:10.1002/qj.1995.
  54. Van Leeuwen, P.J. and M. Ades, (2012) Efficient fully nonlinear data assimilation for geophysical fluid dynamics  Computers and Geosciences,
  55. Fowler, A. and P.J. van Leeuwen, (2012), Measures of observation impact in non-Gaussian data assimilation  Tellus A, 64, 17192, doi:10.3402/tellusa.v64i0.17192.
  56. Kramer, W., H.A. Dijkstra, S. Pierini, and P.J. van Leeuwen, (2012), Measuring the impact of observations on the predictability of the Kuroshio Extension in a shallow-water model , J. Phys. Oceanogr., 42, 3-17, doi:10.1175/JPO-D-11-014.1.
  57. Van Leeuwen, P.J., (2011) Efficient non-linear Data Assimilation for ocean models of intermediate complexity IEEE Statistical Signal Processing workshop (reviewed publication), Nice, 28-30 June.  
  58. Van Leeuwen, P.J M. Ades Efficient non-linear Data Assimilation in Geophysical Fluid Dynamics,  Computers and Fluids, doi:10,1016/j.compfluid.2010.11.011
  59. Ridderinkhof, H., P.M. van der Werf, J.E. Ullgren, H.M. van Aken, P.J. van Leeuwen, and W.P.M. de Ruijter, (2010) Seasonal and interannual variability in the Mozambique Channel from Moored current observations  J. Geophys. Res, 115. C06010, doi:10,1029JC005619,
  60. Van der Werf, P.J. van Leeuwen, H. Ridderinkhof, and W.P.M. de Ruijter, (2010) Comparison between observations and models of the Mozambique Channel transport: the seasonal cycle and eddy frequencies.  J. Geophys. Res., 115, CO2002, doi:10.1029/2009JC005633.
  61. Van Sebille, E., P.J. van Leeuwen, A. Biastoch, and W.P.M. de Ruijter, (2010) Flux comparison of Eulerian and Lagrangian estimates of Agulhas Leakage: A case study using a numerical model.  Deep-Sea Res. I, 57, 319-327.
  62. Van Sebille, E., P.J. van Leeuwen, A. Biastoch, and W.P.M. de Ruijter, (2010) On the fast decay of Agulhas rings. J. Geophys. Res., 115, C03010. 
  63. Van Leeuwen, P.J., (2010) Nonlinear Data Assimilation in geosciences: an extremely efficient particle filter QJRMetSoc, 136, 1991-1996, doi:10,1002/qj699.
  64. Van Leeuwen, P.J. (2009) Particle filtering in geophysical systems. Review on particle filtering, Monthly Weather Review, 137, 4089-4114.
  65. Van der Werf, P.J. van Leeuwen, H. Ridderinkhof, and W.P.M. de Ruijter, (2009) Comparison between observations and models of the Mozambique Channel transport: the seasonal cycle and eddy frequencies J. Geophys. Res., 115, doi: 10.1029/2009JC005633
  66. Van Sebille, E., C.N. Barron, A. Biastoch, P.J. van Leeuwen, F.C. Vossepoel, and W.P.M. de Ruijter, (2009) Relating Agulhas leakage to the Agulhas Current retroflection location. Ocean Science, 5, 511-521, 2009.  
  67. Van Sebille, E., P.J. van Leeuwen, A. Biastoch, C.N. Barron, and W.P.M. de Ruijter, (2009) Lagrangian validation of numerical drifter trajectories using drifting bouys: Application to the Agulhas system Ocean Modelling, 29, 269-276. 
  68. De Steur, L., and P.J. van Leeuwen, (2009) The influnece of bottom topography on the decay of modeled Agulhas rings Deep-Sea Res. I 56, 471-494. 
  69. Van der Werf, P.M., M.W. Schouten, P.J. van Leeuwen, H. Ridderinkhof, and W.P.M. de Ruijter, (2009) Observation and origin of an interannual salinity anomaly in the Mozambique Channel J. Geophys. Res. 114, C03017, doi:10.1029/2008JC004911. 
  70. Van Leeuwen, P.J., and W.P.M. de Ruijter (2009), On the steadiness of separating meandering currents. J. Phys. Oceanogr., 39, 437-448. 
  71. Sterl, A., C. Severijns, H.A. Dijkstra, W. Hazeleger, G-J. van Olderborgh, M. van den Broeke, G. Burgers, B. van den Hurk, P.J. van Leeuwen, and P. van Velthoven (2008) When can we expect extremely high surface temperatures?, Accepted by Geophys. Res. Lett.
  72. Van Leeuwen, P.J. (2007) The propagation mechanism of a vortex on the beta-plane,  J. Phys. Oceanogr .37, 2316-2330. doi: 10,1175/JPO3107.1.
  73. Van Sebille, E., and P.J. van Leeuwen (2007) The adiabatic response of the North Atlantic on Agulhas rings, J. Phys. Oceanogr.37, 2305-2315. doi: 10,1175/JPO3108.1. 
  74. De Ruiter, W.P.M., Brummer, Drijfhout, J.R.E. Lutjeharms, F. Peeters, H. Ridderinkhof, H. van Aken, P.J. van Leeuwen, (2006) Observations on the inter-ocean exchange around South Africa, EOS, 87, 97-101. 
  75. Palastanga, V., W.P.M. de Ruijter, and P.J. van Leeuwen (2006) A link between the low-frequency meso-scale variability around Madagascar and the large-scale Indian Ocean variability, J. Geophys. Res.111, doi:10,1029/2005JC003081 
  76. Palastanga, V., P.J. van Leeuwen, M.W. Schouten, and W.P.M. de Ruijter (2006) Flow structure and variability in the subtropical Indian Ocean: Instability of the South Indian Ocean Countercurrent. J. Geophys. Res.112, C01001, doi:10,1029/2005JC003395. 
  77. Vossepoel  F.C, and P.J. van Leeuwen (2006) Parameter estimation using a particle method: inferring mixing coefficients from sea-level observations,  Monthly Weather Rev.135, 1006-1020.  
  78. Brasseur, P., P.Bahurel, L. Bertino, F. Birol, J-M. Brankart, N. Ferry, S. Losa, E. Remy, J. Schroeter, S. Skachko, C-E. Testut, B. Tranchant, J. Verron, P.J. van Leeuwen, (2005) Data assimilation in the MERCATOR and MERSEA operational ocean forecasting systems, Quart. J. Royal Met. Soc.,131, 3561-3582. 
  79. Van Leeuwen (2005) Ensemble Kalman filters and sequential importance resampling in ocean circulation models, Proceedings of the international symposium on the art of statistical metaware, ISM report on research and education, 21, 14-16 March 2005, Tokoy, Japan, 1-42.
  80. De Steur, L., P.J. van Leeuwen, and S.S. Drijfhout, (2004) Tracer leakage from modeled Agulhas Rings, J. Phys. Oceanogr. 34, 1387-1399. 
  81. Drijfhout,S.S., C.A. Katsman, L.De Steur, P.C.F. van der Vaart, P.J. van Leeuwen, and C. Veth (2003) Modeling the initial, fast sea-surface height decay of Agulhas ring Astrid, Deep Sea Res. II, 50, 299-319. 
  82. Schouten, M.W., W.P.M. de Ruijter, P.J. van Leeuwen, and H. Ridderinkhof, (2003) Eddies and variability in the Mozambique Channel, Deep Sea Res. II, 50, 1987-2003. 
  83. Van Aken, H.M. A.K. van Veldhoven, C Veth, W.P.M. de Ruijter, P.J. van Leeuwen, S.S. Drijfhout, C.P. Whittle, and M. Rouault, (2003) Observations of a young Agulhas ring ‘Astrid’ during MARE, the Mixing of Agulhas Rings Experiment, Deep-Sea Res. 50, 167-195. 
  84. Van Hees, F., A. van der Steen, and P.J. van Leeuwen, (2003) A parallel data assimilation model for oceanographic observations, Concurrency Computat.: Pract. Exper. 15, 1191-1204.
  85. Van Leeuwen, P.J. ,(2003) A variance-minimizing filter for large-scale applications, Monthly Weather Review 131, p.2071-2084.
  86. Van Leeuwen, P.J. (2003) Nonlinear ensemble data assimilation for the ocean, Seminar on recent developments in data assimilation for atmosphere and ocean, 8-12 September 2003, ECMWF, Reading, UK, 265-286.
  87. Brusdal, K., J.M. Brankart, G. Halberstadt, G. Evensen, P. Brasseur, P.J. van Leeuwen, E. Dombrowsky, and J. Verron, (2002) A demonstration of ensemble-based assimilation methods with a layered OGCM from the perspective of operational ocean forecasting systems, J. Marine Systems, 40-41, 253-289.
  88. Burgers, G.,M.A.Balmaseda,F.C.Vossepoel,G.J.Van Oldenborgh,P.J.Van Leeuwen, (2002) Balanced Ocean Data assimilation near the equator, J. Phys.Oceanogr., 32, 2509-2519.
  89. Schouten,M.W., W.P.M. De Ruijter, P.J. Van Leeuwen, and H.A. Dijkstra (2002) A teleconnection between the equatorial and southern Indian Ocean, Geophys. Res. Lett., 107, doi: 10,1029/2001GL014542. 
  90. Schouten,M.W., W.P.M. De Ruijter, and P.J. Van Leeuwen (2002) Upstream control of Agulhas Ringh shedding, J. Geophys. Res., 107, 10,1029/2001JC000804. 
  91. Van Leeuwen, P.J. (2002) Ensemble Kalman filters, sequential importance resampling and beyond, ECMWF workshop on the role of the upper ocean in medium and extended range forecasting, 13-15 November 2002., ECMWF, Reading, UK,  46-56.
  92. Van Leeuwen, P.J. (2001) An ensemble smoother with error estimates ,Monthly Weather Rev. 129, 709-728.
  93. Weber, S.L., R. Guicherit, H.W. van den Brink, R. van Dorland, H. Dijkstra, W. Greuell, G.J. Komen, G. Können, P.-J. van Leeuwen, O. van de Plassche, J.D. Opsteegh, W.P.M. de Ruijter, F.M. Selten, A. van Ulden, J. Vandenbergh (2001) Climate variability, in The Climate System, eds J. Berdowski, R. Guicherit, B. Heij, CRC Press, London, doi: 10.1201/9781003211266
  94. De Ruijter, W.P.M., P.J. van Leeuwen and J.R.E. Lutjeharms (2000) Triggering mechanisms for solitary meanders in the Agulhas Current. J. Phys. Oceanogr. 29, 3034-3055.  
  95. Evensen, G. and P.J. van Leeuwen (2000) An Ensemble Kalman Smoother for nonlinear dynamics. Monthly Weather Rev128, 1852-1867. 
  96. Lutjeharms, J.R.E., W.P.M. de Ruijter, H. Ridderinkhof, H.M. van Aken, C. Veth, P.J. van Leeuwen, S.S. Drijfhout, J.H.F. Jansen, and G-J,A Brummer (2000) MARE and ACSEX: new research programmes on the Agulhas Current system, South African J. of Science, 96, 105-110.
  97. Schouten, M.W., W.P.M. de Ruijter and P.J. van Leeuwen (2000) Translation, decay and splitting of Agulhas Rings in the south-eastern Atlantic Ocean, J. Geophys. Res., 105, 21913-21925.
  98. Van Leeuwen, P.J., W.P.M. de Ruijter and J.R.E. Lutjeharms (2000) Natal Pulses and the formation of Agulhas Rings. J. Geophys. Res..105, 6425-6436. 
  99. Vossepoel, F.C. G. Burgers and P.J. van Leeuwen (2000) Salinity effects in an equatorial Pacific OGCM analysis, J. Geophys. Res., 10.1029/2001JC000816. 
  100. De Ruijter, W.P.M., A. Biastoch, S.S. Drijfhout, J.R.E. Lutjeharms, R.P. Matano, T. Pichevin, P.J. van Leeuwen and W. Weijer (1999) Indian-Atlantic inter-ocean exchange: dynamics, estimation and impact.  J. Geophys. Res. 104, 20,885-20,910. 
  101. Van Leeuwen, P.J.  (1999) The time-mean circulation in the Agulhas region determined with the Ensemble Smoother. J. Geophys. Res. Oceans. 104, 1393-1404. 
  102. Weijer, W., W.P.M. de Ruijter, H. Dijkstra and P.J. van Leeuwen (1999) Impact of interbasin exchange on the Atlantic overturning circulation. J. Phys. Oceanog 29, 2266-2284.
  103. Feron, R.C.V.,  W.P.M. de Ruijter and P.J. van Leeuwen (1998) A new method to improve the mean sea surface topography from altimeter observations. J. Geophys. Res. Oceans103, 1343-1362. 
  104. Krol, M., P.J. van Leeuwen and J. Lelieveld (1998) Global OH trend inferred from methylchloroform measurements. J. Geophys. Res. D,. 103, 10,697-10,711.
  105. Matano, R.P., C.G. Simionato, W.P.NM. de Ruijter, P.J. van Leeuwen, P.T. Strub, D.B. Chelton and M.G. Schlax (1998) Seasonal variability in the Agulhas Retroflection region, Geophys. Res. Lett., 25, 4361-4364. 
  106. Van Leeuwen, P.J. (1998) Comment on ‘Data assimilation using an Ensemble Kalman Filter technique’ by P.L. Houtekamer and H.L. Mitchell. Monthly Weather Rev., 127, 1374-1377.
  107. Burgers, G. , P.J. van Leeuwen and G. Evensen (1998) On the analysis scheme in the Ensemble Kalman Filter, Monthly Weather Rev. 126, 1719-1724. 
  108. Van Leeuwen, P.J. (1997) A monitoring system for the Indian-Atlantic connection. Proceedings of the first international conference on EuroGOOS, Eds.J.H. Stel, H.W.A. Behrens, J.C. Borst, L.J. Droppert, Elsevier, Amsterdam (Reviewed)
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